The agreed text of the agreement was signed by the heads of state and government of the three countries on November 30, 2018, as an incidental event at the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina.  The English, Spanish and French versions will also be binding and the agreement will take effect after ratification by the three states through the adoption of enabling laws.  NAFTA has three primary dispute resolution mechanisms. Chapter 20 is the settlement mechanism for countries. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms, and has been maintained in its original form from NAFTA to the USMCA. In such cases, complaints filed by USMCA Member States against the duration of the contract would be violated.  In Chapter 19, the justifications for anti-dumping or countervailing duties are managed. Without Chapter 19, the avenue of recourse for the management of these policies would be through the national legal system. Chapter 19 provides that an USMCA body hears the case and acts as an international commercial tribunal to arbitrate the dispute.  The Trump administration has attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new USMCA text, which until now existed in the agreement. Clinton signed it on December 8, 1993. The agreement came into force on 1 January 1994.
  At the signing ceremony, Clinton paid tribute to four people for their efforts to reach the historic trade agreement: Vice President Al Gore, Council of Economic Advisers Chair Laura Tyson, National Economic Council Director Robert Rubin and Republican Congressman David Dreier.  Clinton also said, „NAFTA means jobs. U.S. jobs and well-paying American jobs. If I didn`t believe it, I wouldn`t support this agreement.  NAFTA replaced the old Canada-U.S. free trade agreement. Trump resumed trade negotiations with Mexico and Canada four months after taking office, and after 13 months of talks, the parties reached the agreement. The pact was passed in the House of Representatives last December and in the Senate this month with the support of all parties, after some revisions by Democrats in the House of Representatives.
In another case, Metalclad, an American group, received $15.6 million from Mexico after a Mexican municipality refused a building permit for the dangerous landfill it wanted to install in Guadalcézar, San Luis Potosé. Construction had already been authorized by the federal government with various environmental requirements (see item 48 of the Tribunal`s order). The NAFTA Council found that the municipality did not have the authority to prohibit construction because of its environmental concerns.  The former Canada-U.S. free trade treaty was the subject of controversy and controversy in Canada and was presented as a theme in the 1988 Canadian election. In this election, more Canadians voted for the anti-free trade parties (Liberals and New Democrats), but the split of votes between the two parties meant that the pro-free progressive Conservatives (PCs) came out of the polls with the largest number of seats and thus took power. Mulroney and the CPCs had a parliamentary majority and passed the NAFTA bills and bills passed by Canada and the United States in 1987 without any problems.